How does radiometric dating fit with the view of a young earth? Radiometric dating is a method which scientists use to determine the age of various specimens, mainly inorganic matter rocks, etc. How do these dating techniques work? Uranium U , for example, is an unstable radioactive isotope which decays into Lead Pb naturally over time it goes through 13 unstable intermediate stages before it finally stabilizes into Pb In this particular case, it takes 4, , , years for half of a sample of U to decay into Pb The measurements involved can be quite accurate. The question is what are the underlying key assumptions and how reliable are they?
Pro Radiometric dating is the method for establishing the age of objects by measuring the levels of radioisotopes in the sample. One example is carbon dating. Carbon 14 is created by cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere.
Fission track dating is a radioisotopic dating method that depends on the tendency of uranium (Uranium) to undergo spontaneous fission as well as the usual decay process. The large amount of energy released in the fission process ejects the two nuclear fragments into the surrounding material, causing damage paths called fission tracks.
Do you believe radiometric dating is an accurate way to date the earth? Why or why not? Could you also please explain further what radiometric dating is and the process to use it? It is an accurate way to date specific geologic events. This is an enormous branch of geochemistry called Geochronology. There are many radiometric clocks and when applied to appropriate materials, the dating can be very accurate.
As one example, the first minerals to crystallize condense from the hot cloud of gasses that surrounded the Sun as it first became a star have been dated to plus or minus 2 million years !! That is pretty accurate!!! Other events on earth can be dated equally well given the right minerals. For example, a problem I have worked on involving the eruption of a volcano at what is now Naples, Italy, occurred years ago with a plus or minus of years.
How Do Scientists Determine the Age of Dinosaur Bones?
See Article History Dating, in geology , determining a chronology or calendar of events in the history of Earth , using to a large degree the evidence of organic evolution in the sedimentary rocks accumulated through geologic time in marine and continental environments. To date past events, processes, formations, and fossil organisms, geologists employ a variety of techniques.
These include some that establish a relative chronology in which occurrences can be placed in the correct sequence relative to one another or to some known succession of events. Radiometric dating and certain other approaches are used to provide absolute chronologies in terms of years before the present.
All radiometric dating methods use this basic principle to extrapolate the age of artifacts being tested. These long time periods are computed by measuring the ratio of daughter to parent substance in a rock, and inferring an age based on this ratio. This age is computed under the assumption that the parent substance (say, uranium) gradually.
See Article History Alternative Title: The important characteristic of common lead is that it contains no significant proportion of radiogenic lead accumulated since the time that the mineral or rock phase was formed. Of the four isotopes of lead, two are formed from the uranium isotopes and one is formed from the thorium isotope; only lead is not known to have any long-lived radioactive progenitor.
Primordial lead is thought to have been formed by stellar nuclear reactions, released to space by supernovae explosions, and incorporated within the dust cloud that constituted the primordial solar system; the troilite iron sulfide phase of iron meteorites contains lead that approximates the primordial composition.
The lead incorporated within the Earth has been evolving continuously from primordial lead and from the radioactive decay of uranium and thorium isotopes. Thus, the lead isotopic composition of any mineral or rock depends upon its age and the environment from which it was formed; that is, it would depend upon the ratio of uranium plus thorium to lead in the parent material. The Earth can be assumed to be a very large sample containing lead evolving from primordial lead by radiogenic increments.
If modern lead, for example, from marine sediments or modern basalts has the composition of lead in the Earth and if the lead in the troilite phase of iron meteorites has the composition of primordial lead, then a simple model yields about 4. This age is in good agreement with the age of the meteorites and the age of the Moon as determined independently.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:
Historical Geology/U-Pb, Pb-Pb, and fission track dating
This belief in long ages for the earth and the existence of life is derived largely from radiometric dating. These long time periods are computed by measuring the ratio of daughter to parent substance in a rock and inferring an age based on this ratio. This age is computed under the assumption that the parent substance say, uranium gradually decays to the daughter substance say, lead , so the higher the ratio of lead to uranium, the older the rock must be.
Of course, there are many problems with such dating methods, such as parent or daughter substances entering or leaving the rock, as well as daughter product being present at the beginning. Here I want to concentrate on another source of error, namely, processes that take place within magma chambers. To me it has been a real eye opener to see all the processes that are taking place and their potential influence on radiometric dating.
The other point that Justin made was that the dating for Uranium/Lead can be derived from 3 sources: U decay, U decay and the lead isotope ratio. These 3 methods can be checked against each other, especially using the Concordia line/diagram.
May 31, Since , scientists have reckoned the ages of many old objects by measuring the amounts of radioactive carbon they contain. New research shows, however, that some estimates based on carbon may have erred by thousands of years. It is too soon to know whether the discovery will seriously upset the estimated dates of events like the arrival of human beings in the Western Hemisphere, scientists said.
But it is already clear that the carbon method of dating will have to be recalibrated and corrected in some cases. They arrived at this conclusion by comparing age estimates obtained using two different methods – analysis of radioactive carbon in a sample and determination of the ratio of uranium to thorium in the sample. In some cases, the latter ratio appears to be a much more accurate gauge of age than the customary method of carbon dating, the scientists said.
In principle, any material of plant or animal origin, including textiles, wood, bones and leather, can be dated by its content of carbon 14, a radioactive form of carbon in the environment that is incorporated by all living things. Because it is radioactive, carbon 14 steadily decays into other substances. But when a plant or animal dies, it can no longer accumulate fresh carbon 14, and the supply in the organism at the time of death is gradually depleted. Since the rate of depletion has been accurately determined half of any given amount of carbon 14 decays in 5, years , scientists can calculate the time elapsed since something died from its residual carbon Dating Subject to Error But scientists have long recognized that carbon dating is subject to error because of a variety of factors, including contamination by outside sources of carbon.
Therefore they have sought ways to calibrate and correct the carbon dating method.
This age is obtained from radiometric dating and is assumed by evolutionists to provide a sufficiently long time-frame for Darwinian evolution. And OE Christians theistic evolutionists see no problem with this dating whilst still accepting biblical creation, see Radiometric Dating – A Christian Perspective. This is the crucial point:
Figure 1 Plot of number of publications per year for various radioisotopic dating methods. Curves were constructed by counting all publications per year with the dating method listed in the title, as recorded on the web of knowledge ().
There are relative and absolute dating methods used, and they are used in conjunction with one another to give the age range of a site. Stratigraphy- The mapping of layers of sedimentation or artifact deposition. In most cases, the deeper the layer, the older it is, IF there is no disturbance tunneling animals, digging of post holes for a building, etc.
Zooarchaeological analysis- The study of faunal remains in archaeological context. By studying the remains of animals at a site and comparing them to known periods when they were alive, a site can be dated. For instance, finding remains from Pleistocene megafauna mammoths are the obvious choice will give you a relative date. Palynology- Performing a pollen analysis on the material excavated at the site.
Certain plants existed at certain times, in certain places in the past. It also gives climate and environmental information, because those plants live in very specific climatic circumstances. Seriation- Analyzing the artifacts used at a site and placing them into categories according to times in the past they were traditionally used. Spearpoints, arrowheads, and pottery are the most likely candidates, as their technology, frequency, and style changes over time. When a new style is being developed, very few of the newer type will be found, but as the style gains widespread use, many will be found before they slowly disappear to make room for the ever-newer style.
Radiocarbon dating- C14 dating The most widely-known and used. All living things take in C14 as they live, and stop taking it in when they die.
1. Rate of Decay
At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3.
Radiometric dating of rocks and minerals using naturally occurring, long-lived radioactive isotopes is troublesome for young-earth creationists because the techniques have provided overwhelming evidence of the antiquity of the earth and life.
Dating Here of some of the well-tested methods of dating used in the study of early humans: Potassium-argon dating, Argon-argon dating, Carbon or Radiocarbon , and Uranium series. All of these methods measure the amount of radioactive decay of chemical elements; the decay occurs in a consistent manner, like a clock, over long periods of time. Thermo-luminescence, Optically stimulated luminescence, and Electron spin resonance.
All of these methods measure the amount of electrons that get absorbed and trapped inside a rock or tooth over time. Since animal species change over time, the fauna can be arranged from younger to older. At some sites, animal fossils can be dated precisely by one of these other methods. For sites that cannot be readily dated, the animal species found there can be compared to well-dated species from other sites.
In this way, sites that do not have radioactive or other materials for dating can be given a reliable age estimate. This method compares the amount of genetic difference between living organisms and computes an age based on well-tested rates of genetic mutation over time.
Cool examples of radiometric dating?
At higher temperatures, CO 2 has poor solubility in water, which means there is less CO 2 available for the photosynthetic reactions. The enrichment of bone 13 C also implies that excreted material is depleted in 13 C relative to the diet. This increase in 14 C concentration almost exactly cancels out the decrease caused by the upwelling of water containing old, and hence 14 C depleted, carbon from the deep ocean, so that direct measurements of 14 C radiation are similar to measurements for the rest of the biosphere.
Sauvet et al. (in press) present a partial description of the Uranium-series or Th/ U dating method, which leads them to criticize this dating tool and claim that this method provides “an extremely wide range of uncertainty providing a weak base upon which to build scientific reasoning”. In this comment, we discuss three concepts introduced by these authors that could lead to a.
Reference to a case where the given method did not work This is perhaps the most common objection of all. Creationists point to instances where a given method produced a result that is clearly wrong, and then argue that therefore all such dates may be ignored. Such an argument fails on two counts: First, an instance where a method fails to work does not imply that it does not ever work. The question is not whether there are “undatable” objects, but rather whether or not all objects cannot be dated by a given method.
The fact that one wristwatch has failed to keep time properly cannot be used as a justification for discarding all watches. How many creationists would see the same time on five different clocks and then feel free to ignore it? Yet, when five radiometric dating methods agree on the age of one of the Earth’s oldest rock formations Dalrymple , p. The claim that the methods produce bad results essentially at random does not explain why these “bad results” are so consistently in line with mainstream science.
Claims that the assumptions of a method may be violated Certain requirements are involved with all radiometric dating methods.
Accuracy of Fossils and Dating Methods
Charred bones are better preserved and are therefore relatively more reliable. Charcoal is best material specially if derived from short live plants. How to collect samples: While collecting samples for radio carbon dating we should take utmost care, and should observe the following principles and methods. Sample should be collected from and undisturbed layer.
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Uranium glass glowing under UV light Before and, occasionally, after the discovery of radioactivity, uranium was primarily used in small amounts for yellow glass and pottery glazes, such as uranium glass and in Fiestaware. This waste product was diverted to the glazing industry, making uranium glazes very inexpensive and abundant. Besides the pottery glazes, uranium tile glazes accounted for the bulk of the use, including common bathroom and kitchen tiles which can be produced in green, yellow, mauve , black, blue, red and other colors.
Uranium glass used as lead-in seals in a vacuum capacitor Uranium was also used in photographic chemicals especially uranium nitrate as a toner ,  in lamp filaments for stage lighting bulbs,  to improve the appearance of dentures ,  and in the leather and wood industries for stains and dyes. Uranium salts are mordants of silk or wool. Uranyl acetate and uranyl formate are used as electron-dense “stains” in transmission electron microscopy , to increase the contrast of biological specimens in ultrathin sections and in negative staining of viruses , isolated cell organelles and macromolecules.
The discovery of the radioactivity of uranium ushered in additional scientific and practical uses of the element. The long half-life of the isotope uranium 4. Uranium metal is used for X-ray targets in the making of high-energy X-rays.
The Age of the Earth
Dating techniques Photo by: Bastos Dating techniques are procedures used by scientists to determine the age of an object or a series of events. The two main types of dating methods are relative and absolute.
Uranium-Lead dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the decay chain of uranium and lead to find the age of a rock. As uranium decays radioactively, it becomes different chemical elements until .
Radiometric Dating Radiometric Dating – A Brief Explanation Radiometric dating is the primary dating scheme employed by scientists to determine the age of the earth. Radiometric dating techniques take advantage of the natural decay of radioisotopes. An isotope is one of two or more atoms which have the same number of protons in their nuclei, but a different number of neutrons. Radioisotopes are unstable isotopes: They continue to decay going through various transitional states until they finally reach stability.
For example, Uranium U is a radioisotope. It will spontaneously decay until it transitions into Lead Pb The numbers and represent these isotopes’ atomic mass. In this instance, Uranium is called the “parent” and Lead is called the “daughter”. By measuring how long it takes for an unstable element to decay into a stable element and by measuring how much daughter element has been produced by the parent element within a specimen of rock, scientists believe they are able to determine the age of the rock.